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 May 25th, 2015  
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Who’s the boss? – Free Online Library

St Mirren Gus MacPherson Tough talker who will want to improve the

Buddies’ scoring record Record P242 W88 L85 D69

Kilmarnock Jim Jefferies Plenty of experience and can find a gem in

the transfer market Record P305 W112 L133 D60

Celtic Tony Mowbray Should bring attractive football to Parkhead,

but the pressure is on Record New manager

Dundee United boss Craig Levein

Falkirk Eddie May Will have his work cut out to prove he is more

than a cheap option Record New manager

St Johnstone Derek McInnes Young boss with a squad desperate to

prove themselves Record P73 W32 L14 D27

Dundee United boss Craig Levein

Dundee United Craig Levein Has produced a decent attacking side

with good youngsters Record P118 W46 L38 D34

Hamilton Billy Reid Great at guiding young players through, but has

lost key men Record P181 W79 L57 D45

Aberdeen Mark McGhee Will be hoping to galvanise the Dons like he

did Motherwell Record New manager

Rangers Walter Smith Bags of experience with achievements that are

the envy of his rivals Record P136 W86 L21 D29


Copyright 2009 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Hibernian John Hughes Top quality passing is promised at Easter

Road by ex-Hibs favourite Record New manager

Motherwell Jim Gannon This is step up from Stockport and McGhee is

a tough act to follow Record New manager

Hearts Csaba Laszlo Very ambitious with his eyes on challenging the

Old Firm Record P41 W17 L12 D12


No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

 May 24th, 2015  
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Are ‘Mini-Nukes’ The New Big Thing?

Dianne Feinstein, a California Democrat, asked recently.

But some members of Congress believe conventional weapons could do the same job, and worry that mini-nukes would blur the line between conventional and nuclear weapons. arsenal, the submarine-launched Mk-5 holds eight W88 warheads of 475 kilotons each.

A kiloton is equal to the explosive force of one thousand tons of TNT. Crouch, the assistant secretary of Defense for International Security Policy, said in a briefing last year.

Last year, the U.S. spent more in real terms on atomic defense activities than since 1962.

Strategy — In its Nuclear Posture Review last year, the administration identified Iraq, Iran, Syria, Libya, North Korea as countries where “contingencies” could arise that U.S. In the modern U.S. ET Sunday.

AP Photo/Canadian Press/Tim Krochak

CBSNews.com’s Jarrett Murphy takes a look at the prospects for the U.S. “nuclear strike capabilities” must be geared towards, according to a leaked copy of the report.

The 1993 low-yield ban that the current defense bill would delete stated that “it shall be the policy of the United States not to conduct research and development which could lead to the production by the United States of a new low-yield nuclear weapon, including a precision low-yield warhead.”

The Foster Panel, which studied the testing issue last year, recommended improvements that would allow a test within three months to a year of deciding to do so. All rights reserved.

But the administration says smaller nuclear arms may eventually be needed to deal with the emerging threat of rogue states hoarding weapons of mass destruction.

“One way you ensure that there are no safe havens is to be able to go deep,” said Armed Services Committee chairman Rep. “Unless we do a lot more research and development and we find some quantum breakthrough in conventional systems, to go deep is going to require a nuclear capability.”

The move to clear the legal hurdles on manufacturing mini-nukes is part of a broad review of U.S.

At the same time, however, last month the United States produced a plutonium pit — the core of a fission bomb — for the first time in 14 years. arsenal. According to Sen. development of low-yield nuclear weapons.

The Bush administration may get permission to create kinder, gentler or at least smaller nuclear weapons if Congress overturns a ban on doing so.

The defense appropriations bill now winding its way through the Hill contains a clause revoking the 1993 Spratt-Furse amendment, which prohibits the development of so-called “low-yield” nuclear weapons – bombs that pack a punch of less than five kilotons.. — did not prohibit designing a testing device with a yield below five kilotons, modifying an existing weapon for safety reasons or conducting research and development necessary “to address proliferation concerns.”

By Jarrett Murphy

The Little Boy bomb dropped on Hiroshima delivered around 15 kilotons. D. wants to stop proliferation.

“Nuclear weapons have a unique ability to destroy both agent containers and (Chemical and Biological Weapons),” reads a 2001 Pentagon study.

Copyright 2003 CBS. Other efforts include developing lasers and computers to simulate aspects of nuclear tests.

Nuclear Stockpiles: President Bush has agreed to dramatic reductions in the number of nuclear weapons in the U.S. conducted its last nuclear test in 1992, and while the White House opposes the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty — which the U.S. has signed but not ratified — the administration says it has no plans to conduct a test. Nelson.

Announcing its approval of the bill Friday, the Senate Armed Services committee stressed that nothing in the repeal means it has authorized “the testing, acquisition, or deployment of a low-yield nuclear weapon.”

Defense officials said in 2002 that at present, the U.S could go from the decision to test to a trial run in two to three years. Edward Kennedy, the administration has budgeted $700 million for studying how testing might resume. According to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the move “restores the nation’s ability to make nuclear weapons,” and was needed so the Energy Department could replace pits found unsafe or destroyed through regular check-ups.

CAROUSEL – People watch as water breaches a rock wall at Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia, Canada, Sunday, August 23, 2009. “If you were to have a problem with a weapon system that you needed to rectify using a test, you would want to be able to do that faster,” J. A bomb of just one kiloton, detonated 30 meters below the earth, can open a crater wider than a football field, according to Princeton physicist Robert W.

The ban — named after sponsors Elizabeth Furse, D-Ore., retired, and John Spratt, D-S.C. Others contend that making more bombs is a bad idea if the U.S. Last May, he and Russian President Vladimir Putin agreed to slash their active arsenals by nearly two-thirds, to 1700 to 2200 warheads each, within 10 years. policy on nuclear weapons, which has included:

Bunker busters — For the second year in a row, the Energy Department is requesting $15 million to study the need for a Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP).

Supporters say these weapons might be necessary to deal with so-called “hard and deeply buried targets” in rogue states and terrorist camps, of which there might be 10,000 in the world.

But some experts contend that no bomb of any size could go very deep, because the heavier the bomb, the harder the impact — and the harder the impact, the more likely the bomb would explode before it reached sufficient depth.

Testing — The U.S.

However, the administration is paying increasing attention to the possibility that it might at some point have to resume testing if there were a question about the reliability of the nation’s stockpile. A memo obtained by a British newspaper indicates that at a conference this summer, Defense and Energy department officials will consider questions like: “What is the uncertainty in confidence and potential risk threshold for a test recommendation–what would demand a test?”

“How can we effectively seek to dissuade others from developing nuclear weapons while we are going forward with the development of new nuclear weapons ourselves?” Sen. Five people watching the surf from Hurricane Bill were swept out to sea at Acadia National Park in Maine. Two had been recovered and three were still missing as of 5 p.m. Duncan Hunter, R.-Calif., last May

 May 23rd, 2015  
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I want to know about Nukes.?

Since most of the energy would be released upward into the atmosphere.

Most nukes have a destructive area around 114 sq miles.

About 6 miles out from ground zero.

IE: a 8 MT nuke, would not effect 100 times the area of a 8KT nuke. Radiation effects can extend out 150 miles, downwind, depending on wind speed and direction.

With the MT nukes reserved for hardened targets like underground command post.


That’s why most nukes are in the 200 KT to 150 KT range

Larger nukes, do not have a correspondingly larger effective area

 May 22nd, 2015  
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Hari&&MakeUp?? Pics!! | Yahoo Answers

So be creative, please =]

Oh I almost forgot, make up wise; I tend to just put black eye liner on both top and bottom lids, with a light eye shadow plus mascera.. And by hair I do mean cuts and colours, as you can see im open to different colours. =]=]

red http://i174.photobucket.com/albums/w88/i…

blonde http://i174.photobucket.com/albums/w88/i… Yeah I know the pics are weird, but I didnt ask if I was pretty now did I..

brown http://i174.photobucket.com/albums/w88/iluvsparkyubermuch/whaa.jpg

prettie blonde http://i174.photobucket.com/albums/w88/i… So i’d like some funky make up tips too!!

red/blonde http://i174.photobucket.com/albums/w88/iluvsparkyubermuch/23102006010.jpg .

red/black http://i174.photobucket.com/albums/w88/iluvsparkyubermuch/25032006-1.jpg

Ok so im looking for new hair and make up ideas so if you have any thoughts at all let me know.

 May 21st, 2015  
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Fun88 best gaming company

Articles include topics about men’s lifestyle, entertainment, events, gadgets and more. Every month, Bliss holds a voting system for the most beautiful among the Fun88 Angels and features a special interview about the chosen lady the next month. for the 2010-11 and 2011-12 season, Fun88 served as a shirt sponsor for Burnley F.C. Fun88 is licensed and regulated by the Isle of Man and is fully certified and audited by Gaming Associates, a renowned Australian testing and auditing house for interactive gaming. Fun88 is one of the leading online gaming companies using Fun88 Angels as the main theme to add fun and class to attract customers. The gaming platform used by Fun88 for this is provided by Buzzsports. In June 2014, Fun88 renewed its partnership with Burnley F.C. Fun88 Angels, being the face of the magazine, are featured with their exclusive photos, videos and interviews. The affiliate will receive a percentage of the revenues generated by their introduced players.

fun 88 thai. for the 2014/15 Premier League season


At the annual EGR Awards organized by eGaming Review Magazine, FUN88 was awarded the “Asian Live Gaming Operator of the Year” nominations and “Asian Operator of the Year Nominations for 2009 and awarded “Asian Operator Nominations for 2010.


Fun88 has two main products now, Sports betting and Online Casino. Hotspur88 is a microsite which is Asia’s first and only Barclays Premier League betting portal. Fun88 casinos also feature live dealers to attract and provide quality gaming experience to customers.

Recently, Fun88 Thailand added a new casino for their Thai and Chinese market, the Golden Casino. This program is used as a tool to gain more clients/players through the use of links, banners, text links and other promotional or marketing campaigns that directs to the Fun88 site. At the peak of operations, there were five main products by Fun88 with the other three products being Poker, P2P Games and Keno. and from October 2012 to 2014, Fun88 is the official Asian betting partner of Tottenham Hotspur which leads to the existence of Hotspur88. With the efforts of Fun88 to offer its customers a fun gaming experience, Bliss became a great means in providing refreshing insights and entertainment for men. Golden Casino also offers Baccarat, Roulette and Sicbo games.

Fun88 Sportsbook

Fun88 Sportsbook offers sports betting to almost all sports and worldwide competitions.

Zoneplay was a new addition to Fun88’s sportsbook product in June 2012. However, Poker and P2P Games were cancelled when Fun88 left China during April 2010. Fun88 provides a comprehensive suite of gaming products from prominent gaming platforms such as One Works, Entwine, Microgaming, Crown Casino, Gold Deluxe, PlayTech, Laxino, Betsoft, and Bodog.


Fun88 has partnered with world’s top football league clubs such as Burnley F.C. These partnerships proved the brand’s credibility and magnitude.

Fun88 is a leading online gaming company in Asia that offers sports betting, live casinos, slots and keno games, all of which are available in multiple languages. Fun games and activities are also implemented where participants can win prizes.

Fun88 Affiliates

The Fun88 Affiliates site handles the Fun88 Affiliate Program. Fun88 as its name suggests, encourages responsible gaming around a fun theme that is spearheaded by the Fun88 Angels and later on, its own online magazine Bliss. and Tottenham Hotspur F.C.. And Keno was removed on July 2011. This product made sports betting more engaging and interactive.


Bliss online magazine was launched by Fun88 on October 2011. Fun88 and Bliss hold parties and special events featured at the Party Angels sections for their loyal readers. Being a revolutionary innovation to online sports betting, Zoneplay features a new gaming interface and offers a wide range of betting types. This online magazine is the first in online gaming. The gaming platform used by FUN88 is provided by One Works and the casino platforms are provided by Entwine, Microgaming, Crown Casino, Gold Deluxe and Bodog.

Fun88 Casinos

Fun88 Casinos offer four different casinos namely Imperial Palace, Oriental Palace, Crown Palace and Monte Carlo. These four casinos offer a total of over 20 games to choose from with a variety of baccarat, slots, roulette and more

 May 20th, 2015  
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Many Chinese have Olympics as their names by James Larry

Worlds best golf player Tiger Woods, too, has a poignant story behind his name. Same way you are bound to find many kids with Rahul as their name. His father had named him after a Vietnam soldier whom he befriended with during that war. Names have great significance and meanings. People keep names for different reasonssome name their kids after political heroes, film stars and great personalities and after sports stars.

It has been reported that during and after 2000 when China was preparing to bid to host the now upcoming Beijing 2008 Games, around 3,491 people named themselves as Aoyun, which means Olympics. Thats not all!

Go to any nation, one would definitely find many people who have been named after their parents favorite sports idols or there will those fanatic fans who have adopted their favorite sport stars names in order to show their respect for those players.

The cute looking five creatures, Bei, Jing Jing, Huan Huan, Ying Ying, and Ni Ni, that form the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games mascot called Fuwa, have such an indelible effect on the Chinese residents that many kept their names as their own.

In India where cricket is treated like a religion, many parents have kept the first name of the master blaster batsman Sachin Tendulkar as their sons names.

And now, if anyone calls the name of these five creatures in China, it is expected that there will more than 4000 people who will come running around you looking for the people who called their names.

Who said whats in the name? Ask those 7, 491 Chinese people who have named themselves or their kids after the Olympics or with the names of five creatures that are part of the 2008 Beijing Games mascotFuwa. This happened when Rahul Dravid, was considered the batting backbone of Indian cricket team.

The Beijing Games effect: Many Chinese have “Olympics” as their names

 by: James Larry

There is nothing weird in this. Now, the condition is so pathetic for that same man that he finds it tough to get a place in the playing 11 of Indian cricket team.

 May 20th, 2015  
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Beckham bashers have got it wrong

The former Real Madrid title winner was offended that Donovan had questioned his professionalism and the rift between the two took some work and time to heal. There are many things that Beckham can be mocked for – his interest in fashion is not to everyone’s taste, his regular hairstyle changes irritate some, the celebrity obsessed have issues with his wife Victoria and, if we are sticking to football business, it is fair to question whether he should have been playing for Milan and chasing further England caps, after making the decision to move his career to MLS.

Tottenham manager Harry Redknapp conceded that Beckham was in no condition to instantly walk into the Premier League team but was willing to open the door to the midfielder playing a few games before returning to the Galaxy and it was also clear that the player would have loved to get a loan deal. In Grant Wahl’s behind-the-scenes book, “The Beckham Experiment” he was criticised for not picking up the check for the entire team’s dinner and a series of other offences in a fascinating account which, as one former MLS player put it to me, could have been subtitled “Why Landon Donovan Doesn’t Like Being Overshadowed by David Beckham”. With no training or games on the calendar, Beckham went back to his hometown of London to work out with Tottenham Hotspur and get himself back in shape and he hoped get some games in the Premier League.

It was hardly a vintage performance from the former Manchester United and England midfielder but he grafted for 90 minutes and then a further 30 minutes of extra-time in an ultimately failed attempt to win the MLS Cup for his team. Nonetheless, the midfielder put the minutes in on the field and although L.A failed to reach MLS Cup, Beckham’s efforts and his professionalism were again praised after the Conference final defeat to Dallas, when Beckham played through a groin injury.


That MLS Cup game had come at the end of a year in which Beckham had to deal with the fallout from a book which discussed the difficulties he and L.A Galaxy had in developing a working relationship. “My hat’s off to him. A 35-year-old multi-millionaire who has won domestic and European honours with his clubs and made 115 appearances for England, Beckham could have taken it easy and come back to stroll through the final year of his contract, curling a few free-kicks in, signing autographs and appearing on television shows.

The motivation for Beckham returning to Italy was largely due to Fabio Capello’s ill-informed judgment that MLS games were not good enough preparation for a World Cup – a view that Donovan’s excellent displays in South Africa later proved to be nonsense. Indeed, the Californian’s time on Merseyside was accompanied by promotional campaigns on U.S television urging MLS fans to tune into their English programming. Henry did however report back to train on day one of the Red Bulls pre-season prep and it is that fortnight absence that has prompted the fury from MLS pundits.

Beckham badly needed to get back in shape and form for the new MLS season, the final of his five years with Galaxy, but the North American league is unusual in having a long off-season, from mid-November to mid-March, right when almost all of the soccer world is in intense mid-season. “This guy has been hurt or sick for probably the last six or seven games but he gets on with it and he plays. The fact is, there will be few players in the North American league who would have worked as hard as Beckham during the off-season.. Beckham’s camp insisted throughout the reports of negotiations over a possible loan that the player would, in any case, be back at the Galaxy in time for the new MLS season. It was noticeable though that while there was strong criticism of Beckham’s loan to Serie A, there was a very different approach to Donovan taking a similar, albeit shorter, sabbatical with Everton in England’ Premier League. But the critics had a point — Beckham’s intentions certainly had nothing to do with the Galaxy and everything to do with his personal ambitions.

There are some nicely tanned faces in MLS this March – Beckham didn’t get one in Chigwell.

Television coverage of MLS’s opening game began with an attack on David Beckham from two television pundits and critics have continued to question whether the Englishman cares about the league or his club, LA Galaxy, Simon Evans says the Beckham bashing is off target.

“If we have all of our players with his kind of character and commitment, we would continue to do well,” said Galaxy coach Bruce Arena. It was a fair question and one which could also have been put to the Galaxy’s ownership – they could after all have blocked any deal after all. Rookie pundit Twellman’s populist tirade about Beckham “buying shepherds pie” for Tottenham players instead of training with the Galaxy (it was actually ‘pie and mash’ to be culinarily correct), ignored the fact that Beckham could have spent the off-season swanning around Hollywood or sitting on the beach somewhere. Little criticism has been heard of Donovan’s subsequent frequent statements of affection for Everton and their fans which hint at a desire to return to Goodison Park.

The fact that he spent his time, battling to get fit and has come back to MLS and put in two hard-working displays in the league, shows exactly why the Beckham bashers have got it wrong. Then, limping off the field, he walked into the Salt Lake locker-room to congratulate hiss opponents on their title before heading into his own changing room where he complied with American standards and stood to take questions from the waiting media.

It was a remarkable opening to the new season last week when ESPN pundits Alexi Lalas and Taylor Twellman, let rip on air, questioning Beckham’s decisions and joining in with the tone of some bloggers and message board commenters who have attacked the Englishman. That’s helped our team a lot,” said Donovan.

The question marks over whether Beckham was truly giving his all for the Galaxy and the MLS came back again a few months later though, when, desperate to get a place in the World Cup with England, Beckham went on loan to AC Milan and suffered a serious Achilles injury which wrecked any hopes of a trip to the World Cup and also ruled him out of most of the forthcoming MLS season. On that rainy, cold day in Seattle, Beckham took a series of pain-killing injections, wrapped up his injured ankle in bandage and went out to face Real Salt Lake on the unforgiving artificial turf at Qwest Field.

But Beckham’s determination to get fit for this season, to give his all for his team and to make sure MLS’s “Beckham Experiment” is considered a success, is surely beyond question. Invited by this reporter to pass comment on playing a championship game on a plastic pitch with a damaged ankle, Beckham showed his usual diplomacy by evading the temptation to criticise a playing surface which is designed for American football and not the global game.

The debate over David Beckham’s commitment to L.A Galaxy and Major League Soccer should have ended on November 22, 2009. But that night in Seattle, even American soccer’s favourite son was fulsome in his praise for his English team-mate. I say, almost all, because Thierry Henry, another expensive MLS import who had struggled for fitness last season, was also in London training with a Premier League club, but you will have (rightly) heard little criticism of Henry’s time back with Arsenal. He played through a lot of pain those last few weeks, more than you guys know, but he’s a competitor and he wants to keep going,” said Donovan.

By Simon Evans in Miami

Throughout January and the first of half of February, Beckham was out on the training field in Essex while almost all MLS players were on time off. Some Galaxy fans, understandably wondered why their player was even on the field for another club. The loan deal never materialised but Beckham, clearly feeling he was getting close to full fitness in London, asked and received permission to have two more weeks training in London before teaming up with the Galaxy, two week into their pre-season campaign.

Discuss this and other stories at Reuters Soccer Facebook page

Beckham returned from injury in time for the Galaxy’s play-off push last season but it was clear to anyone watching that he was still short of full fitness

 May 19th, 2015  
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What are your best frugal living tips? (Weekly Topic Inspiration)

Make a ‘hobby’ of it.

Look for the discounted items.

Ask for discount.

Look for the ‘free’ items. Everything homemade tastes better, so therefore, i believe, your needs are more satisfied.

Re-vamp old items into ‘new’ furniture, clothes, curtains, cushions. I agree with the hubber who says – write down every single penny spent. That way you can ‘track’ your money.

Grow your own veg, fruit, keep hens, ducks, poultry – even in a small space. Make a philosophy of it.

. you will feel the ‘pain’ of the immediacy of that money spent.

Buy as many items ‘on sale’ or ‘reduced’ as possible. Get ideas from magazines, online.

Discard the credit card – use a debit card, if needed. Make a hobby of it.

Swap unused items with friends, neighbors etc. Make it a festive occasion.

Live on less. By not going to the store for these items you will make better use of your time, energy and ingredients.

Bake your own items – bread, cakes, pies etc. for things you want

 May 18th, 2015  
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History of Boxing

The ‘Marquess of Queensberry Rules’ was a set of 12 rules which called for the mandatory use of gloves during the boxing match, a standard size of the boxing ring, dividing a boxing match into different rounds of three minutes each and a count of 10 seconds for a complete and an undisputed victory. His fights, particularly with Richard Humphreys fetched a lot of audience as both of them would block attacks, taunt each other (both during the match and in the newspaper bytes that they gave the night before the match) and wave their bodies in a unique way for the purpose of self-defense.

The Torch is Lit

After Jack Broughton’s era as a bare-knuckle champion, the interest of English aristocracy in boxing faced a decline.

Glamor to the Glitz

Did you know?A British periodical, London Protestant Mercury, featured the victory of James Figg in bare-knuckle championship in 1719 for the first time ever in the history of prizefighting. Sometimes, the fights became so intense and vehement that they resulted in the death of one of the fighters. Despite all this, in the 21st century, the glory that boxing once achieved and enjoyed, seems to have diminished considerably with other more glamorous and supposedly elitist sports such as cricket and football coming to the forefront.

Men began looking at boxing as a way of defending themselves from hooligans who menaced all across the streets of London.

The popularity of boxing was thus increasing at a tremendous speed. Because it essentially involves fist fighting, the practice may have existed, not as a sport, but as a form of violent encounters, even during the prehistoric times. While he himself was trained in boxing as a young man, he also promoted it as a manly sport. Sullivan (Boston Strong Boy) and James J.

The ‘Gillette Friday Night Fights’ program that aired live boxing matches from around the globe on NBC and later on the ABC network, was a rage.

In the 1950s, the world had started finding its feet economically after World War II. In 1892, in New Orleans, the title for the first heavyweight champion under the Queensberry Rules was spectacularly fought between John L. Army during the Vietnam War. It was one of those competitive sports wherein contestants either lived or died, or in some cases suffered irreparable injuries. A professional British boxer, Amir Khan, shot to fame quickly with the WBO Intercontinental, Commonwealth and WBA International titles to his name. In the following years, a lot of boxers stemmed from controversial pasts. On the contrary, the one who lost was either killed in that combat or was retained as a slave for the rest of his life. Some of these boxers included Henry Armstrong, Joe Louis, Max Schmeling, James. However, the following Anglo-French war for colonial dominance that took place during the 1780s, triggered a strong nationalist sentiment in the people of England in general. Moreover, every new kid on the block, brought with him his own style of fighting (staying within the framework of Broughton’s rules) which gained more and more fame for the sport.

Gladiator contestants wrapped their hands in leather straps embedded with metal shards, sharp enough, to injure their opponent.

An interesting take on boxing, as a mortal combat event, comes from ancient Rome where it was included in the gladiator contests, where the contestants fought until one of them died, or was severely injured. commenced in the 70s which could be viewed live on color television sets. A lot of money was involved in such fights, with the victorious individual winning hefty amounts. The introduction of gloves changed the entire pulse of the game. An immortal legacy has been shaped by various champion boxers, who came, reigned and left. The code of these rules was penned down in 1865 by a Welshman called John Graham Chambers, who was an all-star athlete and sportsman excelling in boxing, cycling, wrestling, rowing and billiards.

As a sport, boxing has given the world great men and excellent sportsmen. The ‘Marquess of Queensberry Rules’ were finally published in 1867. Braddock, Jack Dempsey, Jess Willard and Georges Carpentier amongst many others.

Journey Thenceforth

Mike Tyson (1985-2005): As a boxer, there was no question that Tyson makes an important part of this list. England became the birthplace of what came to be known as ‘prizefighting’, wherein the two contestants fought on behalf of their patrons, sometimes even to settle their patrons’ personal grudges.

Sugar Ray Robinson (1940-1965): One of the few sportsmen who have a commemorative stamp in their name, he is regarded as one of the greatest boxers to ever have set foot inside the ring.

Muhammad Ali (1960-1981): Possibly a living example of why boxing is called a lethal sport, Muhammad Ali has been revered all over the world as one of the greatest boxers ever. Possibly, the very fact that it is a brutal combat sport, wherein participants take on each other, one on one, plays an important role in creating the hype that exists around modern boxing.

The Beginning

During World War II, a boxing ring became a major battlefield for champions hailing from different countries. Despite being an underrated sport today, boxing still finds a huge fan following amongst fierce and passionate boxing lovers. Matches for boxing titles in accordance to divisions such as lightweight, heavyweight, etc. Also, Theodore Roosevelt advocated boxing to a large extent. It became the sport of the masses, a sport in which men from every race, class and creed could participate. He described his unconventional and distinctive style of fighting as ‘float like a butterfly, sting like a bee’.

Rocky Marciano (1948-1955): One of the hardest punchers of all times, Marciano remained undefeated in all the 49 matches which he played. Everyone was suddenly very curious to know about their roots and the origin of things. It was officially ranked as the most difficult sport by ESPN in 2004. More and more people wanted to learn the sport and be an active part of it. This definitely makes him one of the greatest boxers of all times.

18th century Europe saw the age of Enlightenment. Chambers was also an honored member of the International Boxing Hall of Fame. The competitors were divided into lightweight, middleweight and heavyweight in accordance to their physical characteristics which broadened the possibilities of participation. However, a lot of prominent promoters were either involved with the Mafia, or were the Mafia themselves, and boxing transitioned into an intense and notorious backdrop.

Daniel Mendoza was a Jewish fighter and so was often referred to as ‘the Jew’.

A lot of fights began to be arranged during this time leading to a lot of new pugilists rising to popularity. Regardless of this, he never managed to score high ranks but still his winning record brought to his name, a lot of glory.

The 18th century Revival

A Leap Forward

Mike Tyson, in 1986, was reigning supreme at the peak of his career with the World Heavyweight Champion title to himself.

Boxing in the 1980s and 1990s featured some of the most magnificent matches, primarily financed by the corporates. But still, boxing was in a very rudimentary form, in that there were no defined rules and regulations about any aspect of the sport. Corbett emerge as the victor. The attack and defense strategies, gradually began to change from their orthodox bare-knuckle counterparts. The result of the match saw James J. This shows how ceremonially important the sport may have been in ancient Greece. These rules were eventually succeeded by ‘Marquess of Queensberry Rules’ that set the parameters for modern-day boxing. These rules came to be recognized as Broughton’s rules named after an English bare-knuckle champion Jack Broughton, who formalized them. When one of the boxers was too tired and injured to fight any further, the other one was declared the winner.

The 1867 draft of the ‘Marquess of Queensberry Rules’ paved the way for a number of amateur competitions at popular venues throughout London. But popularity always has a price to pay. One such name that rose to prominence was a London-based pugilist called Daniel Mendoza.

The ‘Marquess of Queensberry Rules’ borrows the name from the 9th Marquess Of Queensberry, Sir John Sholto Douglas.

In 1838 came the introduction of the ‘London Prize Ring Rules’ which were to be revised later in 1853. Television had made its way in a majority of homes and international network providers featured live sport broadcasts. and Oscar De La Hoya hailing from countries such as Britain and Canada, who carved a niche for themselves. He, however, returned to the boxing ring in the 1970s.

The first solid evidence of boxing has been recorded way back around 3000 B.C, and comes from Egypt and Mesopotamia.

Boxing is one of the oldest contact sports known to mankind. Several legendary fights of all time are still reminisced upon by ardent fans and spectators. Boxing has also been controversy’s child through time. Boxing, today, is a multimillion dollar sport that has inspired and garnered millions of passionate followers throughout the world. Fighters from Cuba, Russia, India and USA have shown some serious talent in the recent times, and the world has witnessed several women’s boxing tournaments as well. But at the same time, he is also a classic case of how too much of publicity and adulation can be extremely bad for a person.

What started off as a competitive sport mainly played for betting, boxing has come a long way from what it used to be. People from all walks of life would flock to the venues and this spectator sport was usually held at underground locations like the Lillie Bridge in London which was often subject to raids and arrests by the local police. This was the period when the people of Europe looked keenly into their ancient sources of knowledge and wisdom and tried to incorporate them in their daily lives.

With the dawn of the 20th century, Germany emerged as an epicenter for boxing with a number of talented boxers to its credit. But again, these contests were not based on any kind of rules and regulations. Gambling and betting on the fighters came to be a rage with huge stakes involved. This was when the term ‘boxing’ was coined.

Willie Pep (1940-1966): This Italian-American boxer has a record of 229 victories out of the 241 matches that he played. In this quest of gaining knowledge from the sources of antiquity, the curious Europeans stumbled upon ancient references to boxing which triggered a renewed interest in the sport. work by Homer, illustrates how boxing was a sport that was played in the form of ‘prize-fight’ during funerals. Boxers such as Sugar Ray Leonard, Thomas Hearns, Roberto Durán and Marvin Hagler continued to intrigue the spectators. Suddenly, everybody wanted to do things that they thought were truly ‘English’. The upper class elites indulged in more noble forms of entertainment and regarded boxing as a savage sport.

Roosevelt wanted all men of America to be strong and sturdy and regarded boxers to be “men as hard as nails”.

The ‘Marquess of Queensberry Rules’ then transitioned as the foundation of boxing governance into the USA and Canada.

Owing to his contribution to the sport, Jack Broughton is known as the ‘Father of English Boxing’.

In order to avoid such gruesome situations, in 1743, a set of rules were introduced for all boxing matches which were supposed to be played thenceforth. However, the sport itself fell into a state of obscurity after the downfall of the Roman Empire. Vijender Singh, a small town boy from India was also recognized by the International Boxing Association which announced him as the top ranked boxer in the annual middleweight category in 2009. A major part of this physical sport then involved fencing and cudgeling. The 90s paved way for many talented newcomers like Evander Holyfield, Lennox Lewis, Floyd Mayweather Jr.

What had commenced on dingy streets and shady taverns, evolved into a stage with cheering spectators and spotlights; Boxing had officially arrived!

Despite the establishment of the ‘Marquess of Queensberry Rules’ and the soaring popularity of the sport, boxing in the late 19th century came to be outlawed in U.K.

The first officially recorded boxing match took place in England, where Christopher Monck, an English politician set up a contest between his butler and his butcher. Players were prohibited from wearing boots with springs or even from hugging the opponent or wrestling with him. Later on, though, it was included in the Olympic games and thus became a full-fledged sport rather than making ceremonial appearances. Corbett (“Gentleman Jim” Corbett).

The new generation of boxers are also an energetic and spectacular breed.

In countries like Cuba, North Korea and Norway, professional boxing still remains banned.

Soon enough, boxing grew to international heights and ‘professional boxing’ emerged in many countries. This was followed with the establishment of boxing commissions, legal sanctioning and governing bodies. Boxing event organizers, promoters and managers generated a heavy amount of finance through their work. Whoever wished, could take part, and anybody could fight anyone. Some of the basic rules that shaped conventional boxing since then, included

The use of ‘mufflers’ or padded gloves,

Prohibition to attack and grapple an opponent below the waist, and

Disqualifying a player if he was unable to get up and fight back within a prescribed time limit of 30 seconds, after being knocked down by his opponent.

Broughton is said to have formalized these rules after he injured an opponent in a prize-fight so severely that he eventually died. He brought with him, his unique style of boxing footwork and counter punches. The modern professional boxing scene saw many legends showcasing their talent since 1920s. These stalwarts in my opinion are men who have fought for guts and glory and forever left an indelible mark in the minds of fans. As a result, owing to the development of boxing as a white-collared sport in England and the valuable contribution of their very own Jack Broughton to it, boxing also re-emerged, alongside many other things, with force and double the energy.

Though many people thought that such kind of dance-like moves gave a crude tint to the otherwise white-collared gentleman’s sport, the sport did manage to get a considerable fan following of the young and the old alike.

Establishments like World Boxing Association (WBA), World Boxing Council (WBC), International Boxing Federation (IBF) and the World Boxing Organization (WBO) began pitching competitions against each other. Ali was stripped of boxing title and license, after which he did not make a ring appearance for four years. Yet, he steadfastly voiced his opinion about being against the whole idea of the Vietnam War and went on to inspire the likes of Martin Luther King Jr.

One such controversial boxing legend during the 1960s was Cassius Clay (Muhammad Ali), who embraced Islam and was charged with evasion of not serving the U.S. Some sources also tell us that in ancient Rome, where slavery was deeply rooted, boxing matches were arranged for those slaves, who sought freedom. Owing to this, boxing took one more leap forward. Shortly after this era, in the 20th century, boxing, through its highs and lows came to be recognized as a prominent part of society and featured many influential promoters and legendary champions. Numerous boxing schools and academies sprang up all across England and, not surprisingly, most of them were soon overflowing with applications. One famous incident was the 1938 match between Max Schmeling and Joe Louis that resulted in Schmeling’s defeat after which he was compelled by Adolf Hitler to enroll in the German armed forces. The whole vibe and accord of times that saw these champions in action is ineffable and still vests in the hearts of many.

So, in ancient times, boxing was in a very primitive stage. J. But, will there be another iconic era for boxing? Only time will tell!

. However, the sport itself is mired with stories, controversies, contradictions and of course, personal enmities. Boxing Championships were now, not only limited to the United States and England but was also hosted by many other countries like South Africa, Japan, Australia and Argentina. The resurrection of boxing finally came about. as the law was a little skeptical about the motive of this prizefighting sport that was usually held at shady venues. The Greek epic Iliad, an 8th century B.C. This was the first true revolution that happened in the field of boxing. The rules, however, revolved around bare-knuckle boxing only and upheld Jack Broughton’s legacy for a little over a century. He also has a record of winning 73 matches in a row. It did make minor appearances in the form of bare-knuckle fighting during the Renaissance age in 16th century Europe, but did not manage to gain enough popularity, as it was then practiced predominantly by the lower classes. The combat took place between two such slaves and the one who won was released from the bonds of slavery. The butcher eventually won and was rewarded.

The wealthy English aristocrats began to patronize bare-knuckle fights among the boxers whom they chose

 May 18th, 2015  
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